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APA Citation Style - 7th Edition

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The information provided is found in the APA Manual, 7th Ed. Chapter 10

Crediting the contributions must be cited accurately and consistently so that future scholars can identify and retrieve the works cited in the text. If you need to reference any of this information, you will be able to find the reference examples in the following locations:

Textual works group Sections 10.1-10.8 Contains periodicals, books and reference works, edited book chapters, and reference work entries, reports and gray literature, conference sessions and presentations, dissertations and theses, reviews of other works, and unpublished and informally published works. Within those categories are examples by type (e.g., journal article, edited book chapter).
Data sets, software, and tests group Sections 10.9 - 10.11 Contains the categories of data sets; computer software, mobile apps, apparatuses, and equipment; and tests, scales, and inventories. Within those categories are examples by type (e.g., unpublished raw data, entry in a mobile reference work, test scoring manual).
Audiovisual media group Sections 10.12 - 10.14 Contains the categories of audiovisual works, audio works, and visual works. Within those categories are examples by type (e.g., YouTube video, speech audio recording, PowerPoint slides).
Online media group Sections 10.15 - 10.16 Contains the categories of social media and webpages and websites. Within those categories are examples by type (e.g., Instagram photo, tweet, webpage on a new website).
Generative AI Section 10.10

Contains the categories of generative LLM (Large Language Model ) AI. Within those categories are examples by type (e.g., ChatGPT, Bard, Gemini). This, however, does not cover grammar-checking software, citation software, or plagiarism detectors. 

As generative AI is still new, follow this link fo the most up-to-date information:

As described previously, the key elements of a reference are the author (who), date (when), title (what), and source (where; see also Figure 9.1).

For each reference category, a corresponding template illustrates the order and format in which the elements should appear.

If you do not see an example that matches the work you want to cite, use the template for the applicable reference category as a starting point for writing the reference list entry. Then select the appropriate option from each column of the template to write the reference.

When in doubt, provide more information.

For every in-text citation contains the first two parts of the reference - usually the "who" (author) and the "when" (date; see Section 8.11), although this can change if reference information is missing (see Table 9.1).



The information provided is found in the APA Manual, 7th Ed. Sections 10.1 - 10.8

Conference Sessions and Presentations: Include paper presentations, poster sessions, keynote addresses, and symposium contributions.

Template conference sessions and presentations
Author Date Title Conference Information DOI or UIL
Presenter, A. A., & Presenter, B. B

(2020, September 18-20).

(2020), October 30-November 1).

Title of contribution [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location.


Include a label in square brackets after the title that matches how the presentation was described at the conference.
Include all authors listed as contributing to the presentation (even if they were not physically present).
The date should match the date(s) of the full conference to help readers find the source, even though a session or presentation likely occurred on only one day.
Include the location of the conference to help with retrieval (see Section 9.31 for the format of locations).

Reviews: Books, films, TV shows, albums, and other entertainment are published in a variety of outlets, including journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, and blogs.

Template for Reviews
    Title Source
Author Date Review title Details of reviewed work Periodical information DOI or URL
Reviewer, A. A.


(2020, February 3).

Title of review

[Review of the book Book title, by A. A. Author].

[Review of the book Book title, by E. E. Editor, Ed.].

[Review of the film Film title, by D. D. Director, Dir.].

[Review of the TV series episode "Episode title," by W. W. Writer, Writer, & D. D. Director, Dir.].

Periodical Title, 34(2), 14-15.

Blog Title.


Within the square brackets, write "Review of the" and then the type of work being reviewed (e.g., film, book, TV series episode, video game); its title (in sentence case, described in Section 6.17; see also Section 9.19 for whether to format the title in italics or quotation marks); and its author or editor, director, writer, and so forth, with a designation of role for all except regular authors of books.

The information provided is found in the APA Manual, 7th Ed. Sections 10.9 - 10.11

Citing data supports their discovery and reuse, and it also recognizes data as an essential part of the scientific record and acknowledges data creators for their contributions. It is recommended that authors include an in-text citation and a reference list entry for a data set when they have either:

  • conducted secondary analyses of publicly archived data or
  • archived their own data being presented for the first time in the current work (see Section 1.14 on data retention and sharing).
Template for data sets
Author Date Title Publisher DOI or URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.



Title of data set (Version 1.2)[Data set].

Title of data set 
[Unpublished raw data].

[Description of untitled data
set] [Unpublished raw data].

Publisher Name.

Source of
Unpublished Data.


Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://xxxxx

The date for published data is the year of publication and for unpublished data is the year(s) of collection.

  • Published data: Provide the name of the organization that has published, archived, produced, or distributed the data set.
  • Unpublished data: Provide source (e.g., a university), if known.

Include a retrieval date only if the data set is designed to change over time (e.g., if data are still undergoing collection; see Section 9.16).
When a version number exists, include it in the parentheses after the title.

Template for mobile app reference work
Author Date Entry title Mobile app information URL

Author, A. A., &
Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

(2020). Title of entry. In Title of work (Version 1.2)
[Mobile app]. Publisher Name
of App Store.


The information provided is found in the APA Manual, 7th Ed. Sections 10.12 - 10.14

The author of an audiovisual work is determined by media type.

Media Type Include as the author
Film Director
TV series Executive producer(s)
TV series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer
Template for audiovisual media that stand alone
Author Date Title Publisher URL

Director, D. D. (Director).

Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer).

Host, H. H. (Host).

Artist, A. A.

Uploader, U. U.




(2019, July 21).

Title of work [Description].

Production Company.


Museum Name, Museum Location.

Department Name, University Name.


Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets - for example, "[Film]," "[TV series]," "[Audio podcast episode]," "[Song]," and so on in the title of the element of the reference.
In the source element of the reference, provide the name of the production company for films, TV series, or podcasts; the label for music companies; the museum name and location for artwork; or the name of the streaming video site that hosts a streaming video.
To cite a direct quotation, see Section 8.28 for films and Section 8.7 for interviews.

The information provided is found in the APA Manual, 7th Ed. Sections 10.15 - 10.16

Social Media: Twitter, Facebook, Reddit, Instragram, LinkedIn, etc.

Please note that if you found a link to a blog post on Pinterest or Twitter, cite the content directly - it is not necessary to mention that you found it through a link on social media.

Template for social media content
Author Date Title Social media site name URL

Twitter and Instagram:
Author, A. A. [@username].
Name of Group [@username].

Facebook and others:
Author, A. A.
Name of Group.
Name of Group [Username].


(2019, August 8).

Content of the post up to the first 20 words.

Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals].

[Description of audiovisuals].

Site Name.


Retrieved August 27, 2020, from https://xxxxxxx

Social media posts may contain text only, text with audiovisuals, or audiovisuals alone.
Include text of post up to the first 20 words.
Note the presence of audiovisuals (in square brackets) after the text of the post.
Do not alter the spelling and capitalization, hashtags, links, and emojis in a social media reference. If you are unable to recreate the emoji, provide the emoji's name is square brackets.

Example: "[face with tears of joy emoji]"

The full list of emoji names can be found on the Unicode Consortium's website.

Legal References

The information provided is found in the APA Manual, 7th Ed. Sections 11.1 & 11.2

Existing legal references are usually already written in legal style and require few, if any, changes for an APA Style reference list entry.

Ensure that your legal references are accurate and contain all of the information necessary to enable readers to locate the work being referenced.

Table 11.1 Key Differences Between APA Style References and Legal References

Difference APA Style Legal Style
Order of elements in the reference list entry Usually the author, date, title, and source, in that order Usually the title, source, and date, in that order
In-text citation Usually the author and year Usually the title and year
Version of work being referenced The exact version used The version of record as published in an official legal publication such as the United States Code or the Federal Register, plus a URL (optional) for the version used.
Use of standard abbreviations Used for parts of a work (e.g., "2nd ed." for a second edition) Used for common legal entities and publications (e.g., "S" for the Senate and "H.R." for the House of Representatives)

Note: The term "citation" is used differently. The legal reference sense of the word "citation" is meant when it appears without the modifier "in-text."

  • Each reference form usually includes a popular or formal title or name of the legislation and the reference information, which is called the citation.
  • Some court decisions are reported in multiple places, which is called parallel citation (see Example 6 in the Manual).

Resources, such as the Bluebook, will help you verify that your legal references (a) contain the information necessary for retrieval and (b) reflect the current status of the legal authority cited to avoid the possibility of relying ona case that has been overturned on appeal or on legislation that has been significantly amended or repealed.

The information provided is found in the APA Manual, 7th Ed. Sections 11.2 - 11.4

Table 11.2 Common Legal Reference Abbreviations
Word or phrase Abbreviation

Part of government
House of Representatives


Type of legal material

Section of legal material
And following

et seq.
Reporter (source) of federal legal material
United States Reports
Federal Reporter
Federal Reporter, Second Series
Federal Reporter, Third Series
Federal Supplement
Federal Supplement, Second Series
Federal Supplement, Third Series
United States Code
Congressional Record
Federal Register

F. Supp.
F. Supp. 2d
F. Supp. 3d
Cong. Rec.

In-Text Citations of Legal Materials (Section 11.3)
Most legal reference entries begin with the title of the work; as a result. most in-text citations consist of the title and year (e.g., Americans With Disabilities Act, 1990; Brown v. Board ofo Education, 1954).
If the title is long (e.g., for federal testimony), shorten it for the in-text citation (see Example 11 in the APA Manual, 7th ed.), but give enough information in the in-text citation to enable readers to locate the entry in the reference list.

Examples of in-text citations and reference entries for legal materials can be found in the following locations:

  • Cases or Court Decisions: Section 11.4
  • Statutes (Laws and Acts): Section 11.5
  • Legislative Materials: Section 11.6
  • Administrative and Executive Materials: Section 11.7
  • Patents: Section 11.8
  • Constitutions and Charters: Section 11.9
  • Treaties and International Conventions: Section 11.10

Free Citation Guide: The Indigo Book

Complementary series of video tutorials by Peter W. Martin (Cornell University Law School) from his "Introduction to Basic Legal Citation" guide.

Bluebook Tutorial from Georgetown Law Library LibGuide. This page contains three different videos: Statutory citations, Case Law citations, and Law Review citations.