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APA Citation Style - 7th Edition

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Direct Quotation

The information provided is from the APA Manual, 7th ed. (Section 8.25-8.27)

When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation in the in-text citation in either parenthetical or narrative format.


Flores (2013) indicates that “DIRECT QUOTE” (p. 119).

Remember that “DIRECT QUOTE” (Flores, 2013, p. 119).

In 2013, Flores wrote that “DIRECT QUOTE” (p. 119).

Indicating page number examples:

  • Single page (p. 9)
  • Multiple pages (pp. 23-29)
  • Discontinued multiple pages (pp. 80, 92)

Block quotation can be found in Section 8.27 of the APA Manual, 7th ed.

If a quotation is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about ½ inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin. Maintain double-spacing within the block quotation. Cite the quoted source and the page or paragraph number in parentheses at the end of the block quotation, after the final punctuation mark.


Islam et al. (2018) described ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) in the Coma Cluster, Dragonfly 44, consisting of dark matter and the possibility of wormhole formations:

Recently, the ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) Dragonfly 44 in the Coma Cluster was observed and observations of the rotational speed suggest that its mass is almost the same as the mass of the Milky Way. On the other hand, interestingly, the galaxy emits only 1% of the light emitted by the Milky Way. Thus, astronomers reported that Dragonfly 44 may be made almost entirely of dark matter. In this study we try to determine whether or not the dark matter that constitutes Dragonfly 44 can form a wormhole. Two possible dark matter profiles are used, namely, UDG King’s model and generalized Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) dark matter profile. (p. 241)

The information provided is from the APA Manual, 7th ed. (Sections 8.29, 8.31) and the APA Style website

Errors containing Quotations: If any incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar in the source might confuse readers, insert the word "[sic]," italicized and in brackets, immediately after the error in the quotation.


Nowak (2019) wrote that "people have an obligation to care for there [sic] pets" (p. 52).

Changes to a Quotation Requiring Explanation: 

  • Use an ellipsis to indicate that you have shortened a sentence or tied two sentences together. Either type three periods with spaces around each      ( . . . ) or use the ellipsis character created by your word-processing program when you type three periods in a row ( ... ), with a space before and after.
  • Use square brackets, not parentheses, to enclose material such as an addition or explanation you have inserted in a quotation.
  • If you want to emphasize a word or words in a quotation, use italics. Immediately after the italicized words, insert "emphasis added" within square brackets as follows: [emphasis added].

How to paraphrase

The information provided is from the APA Manual, 7th ed. (Sections 8.23-8.24)

Paraphrasing restates another's idea (or your own published idea) in your own words and is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. When paraphrasing, cite the article using the last name of the author(s) and the year, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list. Although it is not required to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation, you may include one.


According to Islam et al. (2018), Dragonfly 44, located in the Coma Cluster of the ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG), is similar to that of the Milky Way with the exception of being almost entirely made of dark matter and having the possibility of forming wormholes (p. 241).

Long Paraphrases: If the paraphrase is several sentences, it is not necessary to repeat the citation as long as the context of the writing makes it clear that the same work continues to be paraphrased.


Velez et al. (2018) found that for women of color, sexism and racism in the workplace were associated with poor work and mental health outcomes, including job-related burnout, turnover intentions, and psychological distress. However, self-esteem, person-organization fit, and perceived organizational support mediated these effects. Additionally, stronger womanist attitudes - which acknowledge the unique challenges faced by women of color in a sexist and racist society - weakened the association of workplace discrimination with psychological distress. These findings underscore the importance of considering multiple forms of workplace discrimination in clinical practice and research with women of color, along with efforts to challenge and reduce such discrimination.


 The information provided is from the APA Manual, 7th ed. (Section 8.17) and the APA Style website

When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text.

When a work has 3 or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation.

APA Manual, 7th ed. Table 8.1 - Basic in-text citation styles
Author type Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
One Author (Luna, 2020)

Luna (2020)

Two Authors (Salas & D'Agostino, 2020) Salas and D'Agostino (2020)
Three or more authors (Martin et al., 2020) Martin et al. (2020)

Group author with abbreviation

  • First citationa

  • Subsequent citation


(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2020)

(NIMH, 2020)


National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2020)

NIMH (2020)

Group author without abbreviation (Stanford University, 2020) Stanford University (2020)

a Define the abbreviation for a group author only once in the text, choosing either the parenthetical or the narrative format. Thereafter, use the abbreviation for all mentions of the group in the text.

Helpful Tip: Some papers may have authors that have the same name. To avoid uncertainty and confusion, refer to the APA Manual, 7th ed. Sections 8.18 - 8.20.

The information provided is from the APA Manual, 7th ed. (Section 8.28)

If the material does not contain any page numbers, provide the readers with another way of locating the quoted passage.

  • Provide a heading or section name:
    "DIRECT QUOTE" (Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, Osteoarthritis section).
  • Provide abbreviated heading/section name in quotation marks if too long. Original heading: "What Can You Do to Prevent Kidney Failure?"
    "DIRECT QUOTE" (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017, "What Can You Do" section).
  • Provide a paragraph number:
    "DIRECT QUOTE" (Chamberlin, 2014, para. 1).
  • Provide a heading/section name with a paragraph number
    "DIRECT QUOTE" (DeAngelis, 2018, Musical Forays section, para. 4).

The information provided is from the APA Manual, 7th ed. (Section 8.6)

If possible, find the primary source and cite it rather than citing a secondary source. 

If the author and the year of the original work are known, include them in the in-text citation.

  • Work that is read: Lyon et al. (2014) & Original work that was cited and unable to be read: Rabbitt (1982)

(Rabbitt, 1982, as cited in Lyon et al., 2014)

If the year is unknown, omit from the in-text citation.

Allport's diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003)