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Chicago Citation Style - 17th Edition

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Guidelines for Bibliography

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.


Double-space your entire paper, including notes and the bibliography (section 2.8).

Tip: Use your word processor's Help function to learn how to double-space your paper:
Microsoft Word - Adjust Indents and Spacing

Hanging Indent OR Paragraph Style

For your Bibliography, you may choose to use either the hanging indent style or format each entry like a normal paragraph with a first-line indent (p. 63). While the hanging indent style is more popular, you may want to check with your instructor.

Tip: Use your word processor's Help function to learn how to create a hanging indent:
Microsoft Word - Adjust Indents and Spacing
Google Docs - Add a Hanging (Left) Indent


Arrange your Bibliography in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the author, or by title or keyword if there is no author (section 14.62).


Capitalize first and last words in titles and subtitles, and capitalize all other major words. Chicago calls this"headline style" capitalization (sections 8.157 - 8.159).


Titles and subtitles of books and periodicals are italicized (sections 8.163 - 8.164).

Author's Name(s)

Cite the first author’s name with the surname first, but otherwise give authors’ names as they appear in the source (section 14.73).

Use the author's given names and surname as listed on the title page, not the cover. If there is more than one author, list them in the order used on the title page. (section 14.75)

If the Bibliography includes two or more entries by the same author(s), give the author(s) name(s) in the first entry only. In subsequent entries, use three hyphens (Chicago refers to this as "3-em dashes") in place of the names, followed by a period. Arrange the works in alphabetical order by title (sections 14.67 - 14.71).

Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
---. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.

What if there is no author?

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should normally begin with the title. Initial articles (e.g. The, A, An) are ignored in alphabetization (section 14.79).


When the Bibliography entry includes a URL that must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon of double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equal sign or an ampersand (sections 14.17 & 14.18).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

If a DOI is included on your source, include it in your citation, rather than a URL, as it is more specific (section 14.8).

Placement of the Bibliography

The bibliography is placed at the end of your paper (section 14.62).